Oxygen enters our body as a gas with two oxygen atoms attached to each other to make one molecule of oxygen. It exits the body as either two oxygen atoms attached to a carbon atom as carbon dioxide or as one oxygen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms as water. The processes in between are complex and result in the execution of the metabolic functions of the body.
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The Role of Oxygen in the Human Body
The human body is about two-thirds oxygen
Oxygen's influence and its role in Human Body
In the human body, the oxygen is absorbed by the blood stream in the lungs, being then transported to the cells where an elaborated change process takes place.
Wikipedia Definition of Oxygen
Oxygen (ɒksɪdʒɪn / OK-si-jin) is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys) (acid, literally "sharp", referring to the sour taste of acids) and -γενής (-genes) (producer, literally begetter), because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition.
Lack of oxygen in body tissues creates a defect of red blood cells that further exacerbates the condition by constricting blood vessels in the lung
A persistent scarcity of oxygen in body tissues - a widespread problem in patients with heart or lung disease - can create a defect of red blood cells that further exacerbates the condition by constricting blood vessels in the lung, Howard Hughes Medical Institute researchers at Duke University Medical Center have found.
Aerobic & Anaerobic Energy - Phosphagen, Glycolytic and Oxidative Phosphorylation Systems
There are three major energy systems in the human body that yield ATP (adenosine triphosphate: the body's energy source). They are the phosphagen system, glycolytic system, and oxidative phosphorylation. The systems will be explained later on in this section. They are important in sport because each system is used differently at different intensities. This is why sport specific training is so important in athletic performance. You must first recognize the difference between anaerobic and aerobic metabolism.
The Adjunctive Role of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in the Treatment of Lower Extremity Wounds in Patients With Diabetes
Diabetic foot wounds are one of the major complications of diabetes, resulting in substantial morbidity and mortality. One mode of therapy is hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO). This therapy is designed to increase oxygen delivery to local ischemic tissue and, by a variety of primary and secondary mechanisms, to facilitate wound healing in the high-risk foot. This article reviews the adjunctive benefits of HBO treatments in the diabetic wound.
The Oxygen Cure
Every cell in the body requires oxygen to function properly. The brain alone uses at least 12% of the total oxygen that people inhale. Problem: The breathing habits of most people don't always provide all the oxygen that the brain and body need.
Arterial Blood Gases
An arterial blood gas (ABG) test measures the acidity (pH) and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood from an artery. This test is used to check how well your lungs are able to move oxygen into the blood and remove carbon dioxide from the blood.
All You Really Need to Know to Interpret Arterial Blood Gases
How much oxygen is in the blood? The Differences Between PaO2, SaO2 and Oxygen Content.
In the field of blood gas interpretation, confusion about PaO2, SaO2 and oxygen content is second only to confusion about mixed acid-base disturbances.
ATP Production and Long Term Health
As the health world continues to have an increased interest in glutathione, it becomes more important that the facts become clear. Glutathione is important and vital to maintaining health and preventing common human diseases, however, there are a few factors that influence how glutathione is produced and if it can be made. As with all things in the body, glutathione chemistry is linked with other chemical reactions and processes; if all aspects are not supported, the reaction is greatly minimized. Max GXL offers a comprehensive formula that can produce increases in glutathione and changes in body chemistry.
Energetics of Muscular Activity
A single muscle fiber may contain 15 billion thick filaments. When that muscle fiber is actively contracting, each thick filament breaks down roughly 2500 ATP molecules per second. Because even a small skeletal muscle contains thousands of muscle fibers, the ATP demands of a contracting skeletal muscle are enormous. In practical terms, the demand for ATP in a contracting muscle fiber is so high that it would be impossible to have all the necessary energy available as ATP before the contraction begins. Instead, a resting muscle fiber contains only enough ATP and other high-energy compounds to sustain a contraction until additional ATP can be generated. Throughout the rest of the contraction, the muscle fiber will generate ATP at roughly the same rate as it is used.
Diagnosing peripheral vascular disease by monitoring oxygen saturation changes during a hyperemia phase
Peripheral vascular disease is diagnosed through measurements of oxygen saturation. In a specific implementation, peripheral vascular disease is diagnosed based on changes in oxygen saturation in tissue. Ischemia is induced, and then measurements of changes in oxygen saturation in tissue are made. Based on changes in oxygen saturation during a hyperemia phase, a diagnosis is provided of whether a patient has or does not have peripheral vascular disease.
Wikipedia Definition of Muscle Hypertrophy
Muscle hypertrophy is the increase of the size of muscle cells. It differs from muscle hyperplasia, which is the formation of new muscle cells.
The Mystery of Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy
Through exercise, the muscular work done against a progressively challenging overload leads to increases in muscle mass and cross-sectional area, referred to as hypertrophy. But why does a muscle cell grow and how does it grow? Although an intense topic of research, scientists still do not fully understand the complete (and very complex) picture of how muscle adapts to gradually overloading stimuli. In this article, a brief but relevant review of the literature is presented to better understand the multifaceted phenomenon of skeletal muscle hypertrophy.
Tissue (muscle) oxygen saturation (StO2): A new measure of symptomatic lower-extremity arterial disease
Near-infrared spectroscopy provides a noninvasive method of measuring tissue oxygen saturation and has been used to monitor extremity compartment syndrome. Tissue O2 saturation (StO2) is potentially useful in assessing patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The purposes of this feasibility study are to (1) explore the diagnostic sensitivity of StO2 in subjects with PAD and symptoms of intermittent claudication (IC) compared with normal subjects, and (2) correlate the change in StO2 during and after exercise with the ankle brachial index (ABI) in patients with IC.
A Proposed Mechanism for Pain Relief Following MIRE Therapy
The most common neuropathy associated with diabetes mellitus is diabetic peripheral sensory neuropathy (DPSN). The true prevalence is not known but has been estimated as high as 90%. The treatment of DSPN with monochromatic infrared energy (MIRE) has become a frequent topic at continuing education meetings and remains shrouded in some controversy and mystery.
What is Anodyne Therapy?
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The Healing Power of Infrared Light
The sun doesn't just provide light for us to see by. That same light becomes energy that living things use to thrive and grow. Humans absorb the sun's energy through the skin which helps to support cellular healing and repair. Learn how to capture the healing power of solar energy and strengthen immune function, reduce fatigue, reverse depression and improve sleep.
Enhancement of nitric oxide release from nitrosyl hemoglobin and nitrosyl myoglobin by red/near infrared radiation: Potential role in cardioprotection.
Nitric oxide is an important messenger in numerous biological processes, such as angiogenesis, hypoxic vasodilation, and cardioprotection. Although nitric oxide synthases (NOS) produce the bulk of NO, there is increasing interest in NOS independent generation of NO in vivo, particularly during hypoxia or anoxia, where low oxygen tensions limit NOS activity.
Near infrared light protects cardiomyocytes from hypoxia and reoxygenation injury by a nitric oxide dependent mechanism.
Photobiomodulation with near infrared light (NIR) provides cellular protection in various disease models. Previously, infrared light emitted by a low-energy laser has been shown to significantly improve recovery from ischemic injury of the canine heart. The goal of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that NIR (670 nm) from light emitting diodes produces cellular protection against hypoxia and reoxygenation-induced cardiomyocyte injury.
Improvement of sensory impairment in patients with peripheral neuropathy
To report the findings in 27 patients with peripheral neuropathy (21 with lower extremity sensory impairment associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy and 6 with other causes), who received treatment with monochromatic near-infrared photoenergy (890 nm) delivered by the Anodyne Therapy System (ATS).
Restoration of sensation, reduced pain, and improved balance in subjects with diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study with monochromatic near-infrared treatment.
Diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) has been thought to be progressive and irreversible. Recently, symptomatic reversal of DPN was reported after treatments with a near-infrared medical device, the Anodyne Therapy System (ATS). However, the study was not controlled nor was the investigator blinded. We initiated this study to determine whether treatments with the ATS would decrease pain and/or improve sensation diminished due to DPN under a sham-controlled, double-blind protocol.
Regional differences in blood flow and oxygen consumption in resting muscle and their relationship during recovery from exhaustive exercise
This investigation evaluated regional differences in blood flow and oxygen consumption and their relationship in exercised muscle during recovery from exhaustive exercise. Five healthy men performed exhaustive one-legged cycling exercise. Positron emission tomography was used to measure blood flow, oxygen uptake, and oxygen extraction in the quadriceps femoris muscle before and after exercise. Regions of interest included five areas of the muscle (two proximal, one central, and two distal), which were evenly spaced across the muscle.
Effects of ambulation on foot oxygen tension in limbs with peripheral atherosclerosis
As walking a few steps increases the arteriovenous pressure difference for blood flow through the feet, we studied the effect of a brief period of walking on transcutaneous oxygen tension (tcPO2). Foot tcPO2 was measured using Clarke type electrodes before, during and after a brief period of repetitive walking on the treadmill in 15 patients with various degrees of arterial obstruction. TCPO2 was significantly higher during walking, than while standing on the treadmill.
Muscle deoxygenation as related to work rate
Purpose: The kinetics of the decrease in venous O2 content in response to constant work rate exercise below the lactic acidosis threshold (LAT) is very rapid, reaching a constant value by approximately 1 min. However, for work rates above the LAT, a slow further decrease in venous O2 content takes place that is attributable to the Bohr effect rather than further decrease in end capillary PO2. We hypothesized that similar differences, with respect to the LAT, will be observed in muscle deoxygenation kinetics when studied with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).
Blood flow and muscle oxygen uptake at the onset and end of moderate and heavy dynamic forearm exercise
We hypothesized that forearm blood flow (FBF) during moderate intensity dynamic exercise would meet the demands of the exercise and that postexercise FBF would quickly recover. In contrast, during heavy exercise, FBF would be inadequate causing a marked postexercise hyperemia and sustained increase in muscle oxygen uptake.
Effect of changes in inspired oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions on wound tensile strength: an experimental study.
Clinicians have long been searching for ways to obtain "supernormal" healing in wounds. However, in a recent review Pruden et al concluded that, with the single exception of cartilage powder, nothing has yet been found to promote better than normal healing.